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MongoDB Sharding(二) -- 搭建分片集群


在上一篇文章中,我们基本了解了分片的概念,本文将着手实践,进行分片集群的搭建


 


首先我们再来了解一下分片集群的架构,分片集群由三部分构成:


mongos:查询路由,在客户端程序和分片之间提供接口。本次实验部署2个mongos实例
config:配置服务器存储集群的元数据,元数据反映分片集群的内所有数据和组件的状态和组织方式,元数据包含每个分片上的块列表以及定义块的范围。从3.4版本开始,已弃用镜像服务器用作配置服务器(SCCC),config Server必须部署为副本集架构(CSRS)。本次实验配置一个3节点的副本集作为配置服务器
shard:每个shard包含集合的一部分数据,从3.6版本开始,每个shard必须部署为副本集(replica set)架构。本次实验部署3个分片存储数据。


 


(一)主机信息



 


(二)配置服务器副本集搭建


配置服务器三个实例的基础规划如下:


member0 192.168.10.80:27017member1 192.168.10.80:27018member2 192.168.10.80:27019


其参数规划如下:



 


 接下来,我们一步一步搭建config server的副本集。


STEP1:解压mongodb安装包到/mongo目录


[[email protected] mongo]# pwd
/mongo
[[email protected] mongo]# ls
bin LICENSE-Community.txt MPL-2 README THIRD-PARTY-NOTICES THIRD-PARTY-NOTICES.gotools

 STEP2:根据上面参数规划,创建数据存放相关路径


# 创建文件路径
mkdir -p /replset/repset1/data
mkdir -p /replset/repset1/log
mkdir -p /replset/repset2/data
mkdir -p /replset/repset2/log
mkdir -p /replset/repset3/data
mkdir -p /replset/repset3/log
[[email protected] repset1]# tree /replset/
/replset/
├── repset1
│   ├── data
│   ├── log
│   └── mongodb.conf
├── repset2
│   ├── data
│   └── log
└── repset3
├── data
└── log

 STEP3:为3个实例创建参数文件


实例1的参数文件  /replset/repset1/mongodb.conf  :



systemLog:
destination: file
logAppend: true
path: /replset/repset1/log/mongodb.log
storage:
dbPath: /replset/repset1/data
journal:
enabled: true
processManagement:
fork: true # fork and run in background
pidFilePath: /replset/repset1/mongod.pid # location of pidfile
timeZoneInfo: /usr/share/zoneinfo
# network interfaces
net:
port: 27017
bindIp: 0.0.0.0
# shard
sharding:
clusterRole: configsvr
# repliuca set
replication:
replSetName: conf
View Code

 实例2的参数文件  /replset/repset2/mongodb.conf :



systemLog:
destination: file
logAppend: true
path: /replset/repset2/log/mongodb.log
storage:
dbPath: /replset/repset2/data
journal:
enabled: true
processManagement:
fork: true # fork and run in background
pidFilePath: /replset/repset2/mongod.pid # location of pidfile
timeZoneInfo: /usr/share/zoneinfo
# network interfaces
net:
port: 27018
bindIp: 0.0.0.0
# shard
sharding:
clusterRole: configsvr
# repliuca set
replication:
replSetName: conf
View Code

 实例3的参数文件  /replset/repset3/mongodb.conf :



systemLog:
destination: file
logAppend: true
path: /replset/repset3/log/mongodb.log
storage:
dbPath: /replset/repset3/data
journal:
enabled: true
processManagement:
fork: true # fork and run in background
pidFilePath: /replset/repset3/mongod.pid # location of pidfile
timeZoneInfo: /usr/share/zoneinfo
# network interfaces
net:
port: 27019
bindIp: 0.0.0.0
# shard
sharding:
clusterRole: configsvr
# repliuca set
replication:
replSetName: conf
View Code

 STEP4:启动三个mongod实例


mongod -f /replset/repset1/mongodb.conf
mongod -f /replset/repset2/mongodb.conf
mongod -f /replset/repset3/mongodb.conf
# 查看是成功否启动
[[email protected] mongo]# netstat -nltp |grep mongod
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:27019 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 28009/mongod
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:27017 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27928/mongod
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:27018 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27970/mongod

 STEP5:进入任意一个实例,初始化配置服务器的副本集


rs.initiate(
{
_id: "conf",
configsvr: true,
members: [
{ _id : 0, host : "192.168.10.80:27017" },
{ _id : 1, host : "192.168.10.80:27018" },
{ _id : 2, host : "192.168.10.80:27019" }
]
}
)

  STEP6:[可选] 调整节点优先级,以便于确定主节点


cfg = rs.conf()
cfg.members[0].priority = 3
cfg.members[1].priority = 2
cfg.members[2].priority = 1
rs.reconfig(cfg)

 对于members[n]的定义:n是members数组中的数组位置,数组以0开始,千万不能将其理解为“members[n]._id”的_id值。


查看节点优先级:


conf:PRIMARY> rs.config()

 


(三)分片副本集搭建


分片1副本集成员:member0 192.168.10.81:27017member1 192.168.10.81:27018member2 192.168.10.81:27019


分片2副本集成员:member0 192.168.10.82:27017member1 192.168.10.82:27018member2 192.168.10.82:27019


分片3副本集成员:member0 192.168.10.83:27017member1 192.168.10.83:27018member2 192.168.10.83:27019


 


其参数规划如下:



 这里一共有3个分片,每个分片都是3个节点的副本集,副本集的搭建过程与上面config server副本集搭建过程相似,这里不再重复赘述,唯一不同的是副本集的初始化。shard副本集的初始化与配置副本集初始化过程相比,少了 configsvr: true 的参数配置。


三个shard副本集的初始化:


# shard001rs.initiate(
{
_id: "shard001",
members: [
{ _id : 0, host : "192.168.10.81:27017" },
{ _id : 1, host : "192.168.10.81:27018" },
{ _id : 2, host : "192.168.10.81:27019" }
]
}
)
# shard002rs.initiate(
{
_id: "shard002",
members: [
{ _id : 0, host : "192.168.10.82:27017" },
{ _id : 1, host : "192.168.10.82:27018" },
{ _id : 2, host : "192.168.10.82:27019" }
]
}
)
# shard003
rs.initiate(
{
_id: "shard003",
members: [
{ _id : 0, host : "192.168.10.83:27017" },
{ _id : 1, host : "192.168.10.83:27018" },
{ _id : 2, host : "192.168.10.83:27019" }
]
}
)

 


(四)配置并启动mongos


本次试验在192.168.10.100服务器上启动2个mongos进程,分别使用端口27000和28000。


STEP1:配置mongos实例的参数


端口27000参数配置,特别注意,需要先创建涉及到的路径:


systemLog:
destination: file
logAppend: true
path: /mongo/log/mongos-27000.log
processManagement:
fork: true # fork and run in background
pidFilePath: /mongo/mongod-27000.pid # location of pidfile
timeZoneInfo: /usr/share/zoneinfo
# network interfaces
net:
port: 27000
bindIp: 0.0.0.0
sharding:
configDB: conf/192.168.10.80:27017,192.168.10.80:27018,192.168.10.80:27019

 端口28000参数配置,特别注意,需要先创建涉及到的路径:


systemLog:
destination: file
logAppend: true
path: /mongo/log/mongos-28000.log
processManagement:
fork: true # fork and run in background
pidFilePath: /mongo/mongod-28000.pid # location of pidfile
timeZoneInfo: /usr/share/zoneinfo
# network interfaces
net:
port: 28000
bindIp: 0.0.0.0
sharding:
configDB: conf/192.168.10.80:27017,192.168.10.80:27018,192.168.10.80:27019

 STEP2:启动mongos实例


# 启动mongos实例
[[email protected] mongo]# mongos -f /mongo/mongos-27000.conf
[[email protected] mongo]# mongos -f /mongo/mongos-28000.conf
# 查看实例信息
[[email protected] mongo]# netstat -nltp|grep mongos
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:27000 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 2209/mongos
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:28000 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 2241/mongos

 


(五)添加分片到集群配置服务器


STEP1:使用mongo连接到mongos


mongo --host 192.168.10.100 --port 27000
# 或者
mongo --host 192.168.10.100 --port 28000

 STEP2:添加分片到集群


sh.addShard( "shard001/192.168.10.81:27017,192.168.10.81:27018,192.168.10.81:27019")
sh.addShard( "shard002/192.168.10.82:27017,192.168.10.82:27018,192.168.10.82:27019")
sh.addShard( "shard003/192.168.10.83:27017,192.168.10.83:27018,192.168.10.83:27019")

 STEP3:查看分片信息


mongos> sh.status()
--- Sharding Status ---
sharding version: {
"_id" : 1,
"minCompatibleVersion" : 5,
"currentVersion" : 6,
"clusterId" : ObjectId("5ffc0709b040c53d59c15c66")
}
shards:
{ "_id" : "shard001", "host" : "shard001/192.168.10.81:27017,192.168.10.81:27018,192.168.10.81:27019", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard002", "host" : "shard002/192.168.10.82:27017,192.168.10.82:27018,192.168.10.82:27019", "state" : 1 }
{ "_id" : "shard003", "host" : "shard003/192.168.10.83:27017,192.168.10.83:27018,192.168.10.83:27019", "state" : 1 }
active mongoses:
"4.2.10" : 2
autosplit:
Currently enabled: yes
balancer:
Currently enabled: yes
Currently running: no
Failed balancer rounds in last 5 attempts: 0
Migration Results for the last 24 hours:
No recent migrations
databases:
{ "_id" : "config", "primary" : "config", "partitioned" : true }
mongos>

 


 


(六)启用分片


(6.1)对数据库启用分片分片是以集合为单位进行的,在对一个集合进行分片之前,需要先对其数据库启用分片,对数据库启用分片并不会重新分发数据,只是说明该数据库上的集合可以进行分片操作。


sh.enableSharding("lijiamandb");

 


(6.2)对集合启用分片


如果集合已经存在数据,必须手动创建在分片键上创建索引,然后再对集合进行分片,如果集合为空,MongoDB会在分片的时候自动在分片键上创建索引。mongodb提供了2种策略来对集合进行分片:


哈希(hash)分片,对单列使用hash索引作为分片键
sh.shardCollection("<database>.<collection>",{shard key field : "hashed"})
范围(range)分片,可以使用多个字段作为分片键,并将数据划分为由分片键确定的连续范围
sh.shardCollection("<database>.<collection>",{<shard key field>:1,...} )

 


例子:对集合user进行hash分片


// 连接到mongos,进入lijiamandb数据库,对新集合users插入10万条数据
use lijiamandb
for (i=1;i<100000;i++){
db.user.insert({
"id" : i,
"name" : "name"+i,
"age" : Math.floor(Math.random()*120),
"created" : new Date()
});
}
// 使用mongostat可以看到,所有数据都写入到了主节点(shard2),每个数据库的主节点可能不同,可以使用sh.status()查看。
[[email protected] ~]# mongostat --port 27000 5 --discover
host insert query update delete getmore command dirty used flushes mapped vsize res faults qrw arw net_in net_out conn set repl time
localhost:27000 352 *0 *0 *0 0 704|0 0 0B 356M 32.0M 0 0|0 0|0 224k 140k 10 RTR Jan 15 10:52:32.046
host insert query update delete getmore command dirty used flushes mapped vsize res faults qrw arw net_in net_out conn set repl time
192.168.10.81:27017 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 2|0 0.3% 0.8% 0 1.90G 133M n/a 0|0 1|0 417b 9.67k 23 shard001 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.061
192.168.10.81:27018 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 3|0 0.3% 0.8% 1 1.93G 132M n/a 0|0 1|0 1.39k 11.0k 28 shard001 PRI Jan 15 10:52:32.067
192.168.10.81:27019 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 2|0 0.3% 0.8% 0 1.95G 148M n/a 0|0 1|0 942b 10.2k 26 shard001 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.070
192.168.10.82:27017 352 *0 *0 *0 407 1192|0 2.5% 11.7% 1 1.99G 180M n/a 0|0 1|0 1.52m 1.15m 29 shard002 PRI Jan 15 10:52:32.075
192.168.10.82:27018 *352 *0 *0 *0 409 441|0 4.5% 8.9% 0 1.96G 163M n/a 0|0 1|0 566k 650k 25 shard002 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.085
192.168.10.82:27019 *352 *0 *0 *0 0 2|0 4.4% 9.7% 0 1.92G 168M n/a 0|0 1|0 406b 9.51k 24 shard002 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.093
192.168.10.83:27017 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 1|0 0.2% 0.6% 1 1.89G 130M n/a 0|0 1|0 342b 9.17k 22 shard003 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.099
192.168.10.83:27018 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 2|0 0.2% 0.6% 0 1.95G 139M n/a 0|0 1|0 877b 9.92k 28 shard003 PRI Jan 15 10:52:32.107
192.168.10.83:27019 *0 *0 *0 *0 0 1|0 0.2% 0.6% 0 1.90G 133M n/a 0|0 1|0 342b 9.17k 21 shard003 SEC Jan 15 10:52:32.113
localhost:27000 365 *0 *0 *0 0 731|0 0 0B 356M 32.0M 0 0|0 0|0 233k 145k 10 RTR Jan 15 10:52:37.047
// 使用分片键id创建hash分片,因为id上没有hash索引,会报错
sh.shardCollection("lijiamandb.user",{"id":"hashed"})
/* 1 */
{
"ok" : 0.0,
"errmsg" : "Please create an index that starts with the proposed shard key before sharding the collection",
"code" : 72,
"codeName" : "InvalidOptions",
"operationTime" : Timestamp(1610679762, 4),
"$clusterTime" : {
"clusterTime" : Timestamp(1610679762, 4),
"signature" : {
"hash" : { "$binary" : "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=", "$type" : "00" },
"keyId" : NumberLong(0)
}
}
}
// 需要手动创建hash索引
db.user.ensureIndex()
// 查看索引
/* 1 */
[
{
"v" : 2,
"key" : {
"_id" : 1
},
"name" : "_id_",
"ns" : "lijiamandb.user"
},
{
"v" : 2,
"key" : {
"id" : "hashed"
},
"name" : "id_hashed",
"ns" : "lijiamandb.user"
}
]
# 最后再重新分片即可
sh.shardCollection("lijiamandb".user,{"id":"hashed"})

 


到这里,我们分片集群环境已经搭建完成,接下来我们将会学习分片键的选择机制。


 


【完】


 


 


相关文档合集:


1. MongoDB Sharding(一) -- 分片的概念2. MongoDB Sharding(二) -- 搭建分片集群3. MongoDB Sharding(三) -- zone4. MongoDB Sharding(四) -- 分片集群的维护管理


版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接和本声明。
本文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/lijiaman/p/14285489.html

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